On the causes and preventive measures of safety ac

2022-08-21
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Talking about the causes of construction safety accidents and preventive measures

construction safety is the foundation guarantee for the safety of production, operation, residence, study and entertainment activities. If the safety management is not good, once an accident occurs, it will not only cause significant economic losses, but also have a bad impact on the country and society

1. Reasons for safety accidents in construction projects

1.1 unsafe behavior of people: construction personnel lack safety awareness, violate the need to change the existing experimental machine function concept, loading mechanism, control principle, etc. to make a breakthrough design anti regulation, operation error, etc

1.2 unsafe state of objects: lack or defect of safety protection, insurance, signal and other devices; Mechanical equipment, facilities, tools, accessories, etc. are defective; Personal protective equipment (including safety helmet, safety belt, safety shoes, gloves, goggles, face shield, protective clothing, etc.) are lack or defective

1.3 adverse environmental factors: insufficient lighting at the construction site, poor vision; Poor ventilation and dust flying; The workplace is narrow and messy, with vertical and horizontal ditches; The roads at the construction site are blocked; Materials, tools and instruments are piled up in disorder; The noise is harsh

1.4 defects in management: employees work without three-level safety education; There is no safety technical disclosure for all types of work; Failure to implement various safety production systems; Less investment in safety technical measures; The safety production inspection is a mere formality, and the hidden dangers found in the inspection are not rectified according to the specified person, measures and time, and the accidents are not handled according to the principle of "four not letting go"

Many industries and fields such as plastic, rubber, metal materials and products

2 Preventive measures and Countermeasures for construction safety accidents

2.1 rule people by law: control the occurrence of safety accidents in accordance with laws and regulations such as the construction law, the safety production law, the labor law and the regulations on the administration of safety production of construction projects

2.2 managing people by system: the setting of the safety management system at the construction site should be combined with the characteristics of building safety, and the necessary safety management personnel should be equipped according to the size of the construction project to meet the needs of safety management

2.3 strengthen safety education and training for workers: migrant workers on construction sites must first carry out three-level safety education of the company, project department and team before they can work. For workers who change their types of work, we should integrate the education and training of safety operation methods and safety technical knowledge of the operating procedures of new posts, implement one-stop management, and prohibit untrained personnel from taking up their posts, so as to effectively solve the problems of weak safety awareness, lack of safety knowledge, lack of standardization of safety behavior, lack of safety measures and so on

2.4 technical measures for accident prevention: in order to achieve the effect of preventing accidents and reducing accident losses, the following safety technical measures should be taken

(1) standardize scaffold erection. Correct the method of fixing the frame and the building structure, and set the first step of fixing; Correct and complete the horizontal sweeping rod; The frame body shall be closed internally and the facade shall be completely closed; Standardize the setting of pole foundation; Prohibit the use of illegal low-quality pipes and low-quality scaffold boards; Put an end to the fact that the unloading platform is not set independently; Correctly guide the new portal scaffold to be erected and used according to the national building safety code; It is strictly forbidden to mix steel pipes and moso bamboo; Bamboo scaffolding will be eliminated

(2) standardize the erection and removal of formwork support system. Attach great importance to the stability of the erection of the support system, strictly control the butt joint of the columns, strictly control the material selection of the supports and the verticality of the columns, strictly control the illegal brick laying of the main column, strictly control the standard setting and material of the vertical and horizontal horizontal supports, severely punish the steel wood mixed support, severely punish the illegal removal of the formwork support system, and pay high attention to and strictly manage the standard erection and removal of the high formwork

(3) attach great importance to foundation pit support. Standardize the excavation of foundation pit and the protection of adjacent openings, strengthen the monitoring of foundation pit and its surroundings, and file them as required; Pay attention to the safe and standardized operation of machinery, gas cylinders, submersible pumps, etc

(4) standardize the protection of edge openings and entrances and exits. Implement the use of tooled and stereotyped protective products, and focus on the use of tooled and stereotyped protective doors at the elevator wellhead as required; Pay attention to wearing safety helmets and safety belts for work at heights; Supervise and urge the use of qualified safety eyelets, levels, helmets and safety belts as required

(5) regulate on-site construction electricity. Pay attention to the use of TN-S system to ensure that the special protective zero line is used by electrical equipment; Pay attention to the secondary protection of three-level distribution and implement one machine, one room, one leakage and one box; Pay attention to the standard setting of the general distribution room; Pay attention to the matching of parameters of leakage protection device; Standardized use of qualified standard distribution boxes, correct access wiring; Pay attention to the standardized layout of on-site distribution lines; Attach great importance to external power protection and the allocation of licensed electricians

(6) standardize the protection of on-site construction machines and tools. Such as the safety protection of tower cranes, derricks, physical hoists, circular saws, electric welding machines, mixers, water mills, submersible pumps, etc. Keep the equipment in good condition and improve its service life and efficiency

(7) standardize the erection of well frame. Standardize the rigid connection between the frame and the building structure; Pay attention to the setting of limit safety device; Pay attention to the protection of basket; Pay attention to the stability of the frame; Grasp the independent erection, stability and tightness of the unloading platform; Grasp the first floor and set up a one-way door to avoid being used as a channel at the same time; Strictly control the ultra-high erection of the pipe frame in place at one time

(8) standardize the erection, dismantling and use of tower cranes and external elevators. Ensure that tower cranes and external elevators are erected and dismantled by professional teams with erection and dismantling qualifications; Strictly control the allocation of drivers, commanders and riggers according to regulations and the implementation of working with certificates, strictly prevent illegal erection, dismantling and operation, pay attention to the protection of equipment, pay attention to the effective action of safety devices, and pay attention to the filing of data required by regulations

(9) set up safety warning devices: set up safety warning signs and other devices at eye-catching positions, pay attention to on-site fire prevention and construction site signs, and set them when the samples are artificially aged

(10) strengthen and standardize civilized construction on site. Pay attention to the publicity of civilized construction awareness, pay attention to the site appearance, hardening, access, material stacking, site cleaning after construction, drainage system, closed treatment, and attach great importance to and standardize living facilities

(11) reasonably use labor protection articles. Unified procurement of qualified protective articles, proper storage and correct use of protective articles are also one of the indispensable measures to prevent accidents and reduce the degree of injury

(12) seasonal safety technical measures. Due to the sudden accidents caused by seasonal construction, comprehensive measures should be taken from the aspects of protection, technology, management, etc

2.5 emergency rescue: emergency rescue measures refer to a series of measures taken to rescue construction personnel in distress and eliminate on-site hazards after the accident, including on-site command, organization of rescue teams, allocation of rescue materials, etc. At this stage, we should achieve the purpose of emergency rescue, make a detailed analysis of the possible dangers of the project, and be prepared to deal with various accidents at any time according to the formulated emergency plan for production safety accidents. This is not only conducive to reducing the occurrence of safety accidents, but also conducive to the construction project to reduce property losses and minimize economic losses

the safety protection function of the experimental machine, especially the electronic experimental machine controlled by microcomputer, has other manifestations. Safe production is related to the safety of people's lives and property, and to the overall situation of the sustainable development of the national economy and social stability. Therefore, how to carry out safety prevention and control of construction projects is a subject that construction industry practitioners must treat scientifically, seriously and carefully

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