Several confusing problems in the most popular OHS

2022-09-23
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Several easily confused problems in OHSMS audit

in the audit of occupational safety and health management system (OHSMS18000), due to the influence of various factors, it is easy to cause confusion and debate on the following aspects. The author gives his views on several issues in combination with his experience in the audit work

improper classification method of hazards

in the audit specification of occupational safety and health management system, hazards are defined as the root causes or conditions that may cause casualties, diseases and property losses, and the industrial scope will reach 2billion yuan in 2020, and the working environment will be damaged

there are many ways to classify hazards. In the actual operation of 2.8 machine, the closed-loop control of control mode and the program control of experimental process are realized. Because the organization does not grasp the definition or description of hazards accurately, it can not accurately find out the hazards. This is mainly manifested in the following:

-- mistaking equipment and facilities as hazards, such as a certain machine tool, safety valve, flange, etc. Correctly, it should be clear that there is a lack of protective cover at a certain part of the machine tool, safety valve failure at a certain part, flange leakage, etc

-- treat a set of processes as hazards. What is correct is that the temperature and pressure of a process exceed the design value

-- hazards that may cause property losses and damage to the working environment are not identified

-- in the procedure documents of the enterprise, the hazard sources are divided into class I hazard sources and class II hazard sources. However, in practice, the employees of the enterprise cannot judge which hazard source is the first and which is the second. This kind of classification of hazards according to the viewpoint of energy theory is not easy to be accepted and understood by the majority of workers in actual operation, and it is not suitable for use

-- omit hazards that may cause diseases or affect human health, such as high temperature, low temperature, vibration, etc

according to my work experience, the author believes that the following two classification methods are ideal for hazard classification, which also makes it easier for enterprise employees to master

first, the method of classification according to the direct causes of accidents and hazards. According to this method, hazards are divided into physical hazards, chemical hazards, biological hazards, physiological and psychological hazards, behavioral hazards, and other hazards

second, the classification method is based on the accident category and occupational disease category. According to GB, dangerous and hazardous factors can be divided into 16 categories: object strike, vehicle injury, mechanical injury, lifting injury, electric shock, drowning, scalding, fire, falling from height, collapse, blasting, gunpowder explosion, chemical explosion, physical explosion, poisoning, asphyxia and other injuries (including roof falling, water penetration, gas explosion, etc.). With reference to the relevant provisions of occupational diseases, hazardous factors can be divided into: productive dust, poisons, noise and vibration, high temperature, low temperature, radiation and other hazardous factors

the adequacy of hazard identification is insufficient

what kind of hazard identification is sufficient? This problem has been puzzling the enterprises applying for certification. Some consulting companies even require enterprises to identify how many hazard sources in order to meet the sufficiency of hazard identification. As everyone knows, the number of hazard sources is related to a series of complex factors, such as the scale, complexity, process characteristics, old and new equipment, industry characteristics, employees' safety awareness, geographical location and so on. Enterprises of the same scale, producing the same products, may have a great difference in the number of hazard sources, giving enterprises the index of the number of hazard sources, It not only brings ideological and economic burden to enterprises, but also makes enterprises carry a heavy burden to find the so-called sources of danger

Appendix 1 of the guidelines for the implementation of audit specifications has such a sentence: "identify hazards: identify the main hazards related to various business activities. Consider who will be injured and how to be injured." In this sense, enterprises are not required to identify all hazards related to various business activities. Because safety is a relative concept, different development stages, different organizations and even different systems, the concept of safety may be different, and absolute safety is not available. Therefore, in the process of hazard identification, it is impossible and meaningless for enterprises to identify all hazards. Affected by the stage of economic development, the level of productivity, the level of science and technology, and people's safety concept, there are always some hazards that people may not pay attention to. With the passage of time, economic development and people's different requirements for safety, Maybe those problems that have not been valued by you will be on the agenda, and then these hazards need to be considered

take a practical example to identify the hazard sources of an office building of a company. The hazard sources identified by the enterprise include: safety of electricity, fire safety, safety of elevators, ventilation of offices, radiation of computers, copiers and other equipment, freon leakage of air conditioners, damage to human health caused by decoration materials, safety of the office building itself, etc. Such hazard identification should be considered sufficient. For the hazards such as scalding of boiling water and falling of personnel caused by carelessness in wiping glass, if the enterprise does not identify such a hazard, it cannot be said that the enterprise's hazard identification is insufficient. As for the hazards of walking and wrestling, if different people often fall in the same position, it should be treated as a hazard. For example, it may be the reason for the slippery floor, but if someone falls in a certain position one day, it is not necessary to treat it as a hazard at all

it should be noted that during the audit, auditors should pay attention to whether the accident account, hidden danger account and the problems found in previous safety inspections of the employer are listed in the list of hazard sources. If it is not listed, it indicates that the identification of hazard sources is insufficient

use the word "major hazard installations" with caution

in the production safety law and the identification of major hazard installations (GB), major hazard installations are defined as units (including places and facilities) that produce, handle, use or store hazardous substances for a long time or temporarily, and the quantity of hazardous substances is equal to or exceeds the critical quantity. This shows that China has a clear definition of major hazard installations, and article 85 of the work safety law requires that major hazard installations should be registered and filed, evaluated, monitored, and emergency plans should be formulated. Therefore, the unacceptable hazards identified by the employer in the hazard identification cannot be arbitrarily called major hazards, and only the conditions in the above definition can be called major hazards

in terms of the current domestic situation, the results of hazard identification of many employers have formed a list of major hazards. The misuse of major hazard words in the certification process leads to the confusion between the real major hazard sources and the so-called "major hazard sources". Therefore, in the process of certification (consultation), the certification body (consulting body) should explain clearly to the enterprise what is a major hazard source, and inform the enterprise that it should be cautious to use the word "major hazard source" or simply "unacceptable risk"

suitability of risk assessment method

LEC Method is widely used in China to assess the risk of hazard sources identified by employers, regardless of the characteristics of the industry in which the employer is located. The author believes that LEC method can only be used for risk assessment of general operating conditions. For some complex systems, especially when analyzing the inherent risks of some systems, it is obviously not enough to rely on this method for risk assessment, and other methods are needed for analysis and evaluation

the evaluation method should be based on the principle of fully identifying the hazard sources existing in the employer and effectively evaluating the hazard degree of the hazard sources. When one evaluation method is not enough to evaluate the dangerous situation of the employer, the employer should consider combining other evaluation methods to jointly evaluate its risks

according to the experience of engaging in safety work, the author obtains the following risk evaluation methods for different industries

for general industries (such as machinery industry), safety checklist and LEC can be used

for the construction industry and power industry, safety checklist, LEC, FTA, ETA (used when evaluating some devices and equipment) should be adopted

for the chemical industry, HAZOP (combined with FTA if necessary), Dow and other index analysis methods should be used. The LEC Method is only applicable to the hazard analysis of operators in chemical enterprises

for pressure vessel and pipeline industry, HAZOP, Dow, FTA, etc. should be adopted

is it necessary to establish a management plan?

Article 4.3.4 of the audit specification requires that the employer should formulate and maintain a management plan aimed at achieving occupational safety and health goals and document it. At present, there are many debates about the management plan in China's OHSMS certification industry. The main questions are:

-- when should enterprises establish a management plan and when can they not

-- number of management schemes

-- what is the relationship between the management plan and the occupational safety and health objectives of the enterprise? Is there a corresponding management plan for each objective

-- is it necessary to establish a management plan for the unacceptable risks of the enterprise

for the above problems, the author believes that, first, as long as the employer can control its risks, it can completely decide when to build a management plan or not. If a management plan is established, the timetable should be clear and appropriate resources should be allocated, such as human, financial, equipment and logistical support. Second, the measured force value of the management plan is also high or low, and the quantity is appropriate to achieve its occupational safety and health goals. Third, the purpose of establishing a management plan is to achieve its occupational safety and health policies and objectives, but not every occupational safety and health objective needs to be implemented through the establishment of a management plan. For example, the occupational safety and health goals of a star hotel in 2003 are: Zero fire accidents, 80% daily ventilation capacity of the ventilation system, and zero food poisoning. In view of these three objectives, the hotel has only established a management plan for the second ventilation system and invested funds to transform the ventilation system, while there is no management plan for the first and third objectives. The reason is that the hotel's fire protection system has been transformed not long ago, which can meet the requirements of the fire department and achieve the goal of zero fire accident. As for the problem of food poisoning, the hotel has always paid attention to food hygiene. In the past few years, there has never been a poisoning incident, which can fully achieve the goal of zero accuracy of the number of food poisoning. The author believes that the practice of the hotel is in line with the requirements of the system. Fourth, for unacceptable risks, you should consult the employer's hazard identification, risk assessment and risk control procedures, and see the provisions of the employer's procedures on the control methods for unacceptable risks. You can do it according to the specified requirements, and you don't have to establish a management plan

update of hazard identification

hazard identification, risk assessment and control is a process of continuous improvement. The employer shall review the hazard identification, risk assessment and control process according to the scheduled time and cycle or the time and cycle determined by the manager. Especially when

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